Ask The Genius - Glossary of Terms


a

A.D.A.: American with Disabilities Act

A.N.S.I.: American National Standards Institute

A.S.T.M.: American Society of Testing & Materials

 



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C.A.B.O.: Council of American Building Officials

d

Doors:
Caulk: A silicone or latex base sealant used over windows, doors, glass in doors, and in siding seams over windows and doors to protect against leakage.

Closer: Hardware mounted on a door, usually at top of door that through the use of hydraulic pressure, closes a door automatically.

H.C.: Hollow core. Type of door that is hollow in the center of the door. Typically wood construction.

H.M.: Hollow metal. Type of door that is made out of metal sheets with a hollow core.

Panic Device: Hardware mounted on a door, usually waist high, that allows you to open a door from the inside by pushing on a bar.

S.C.: Solid Core. Type of door that is solid in the center. More expensive than hollow core. Adds sound and sometimes fire rating to door.

Rated Door: Term for the fire rating assign to a certain door. Doors in fire rated walls or fire separations require rated doors. Rating is a value associated with how long a fire will take to burn through the structure. Ratings range from 20 minutes, to 1 hour, 1-1/2 hours, 2 hours, etc.

V.P.: Vision Panel. Term for the glass in doors. Usually 10"x 10"or 5"x 20".

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Electric:
AC: Alternating current (or air conditioning)

Amps: Amperes, the intensity of electrical current produced through resistance of device, the rate of flow of electricity through a circuit

AWG: American Wire Gauge, refers to standard wire sizes.

Breaker: Circuit breaker. Overload protection device. Electrical device used to open and close electrical circuit by manual means or open circuit automatically on predetermined overload current. Example: 20 amp breaker will trip open the circuit when detects more than 20 amp draw on circuit wiring.

Breaker- Double Pole: Device to open, close, protect 240 volt circuits.

Breaker- Main: Device to open, close, protect all breakers in panel.

Breaker- Single Pole: Device to open, close, protect 120 volt circuits.

BX: Type of electrical conduit, refers to metal jacket around wires. One step up from romex.

Circuit: The wiring and devices to which electricity is supplied from the breaker panel.

Conduit: A tube or trough for receiving and protecting electric wires.

Disconnect: A switch device with which to disconnect an electrical circuit. Although not fused (protective device to protect from over current) must be sized to circuit capacity.

Egress Lighting: Emergency lighting that lights the exit in a building during power outages. Typically wall mounted, battery backup lights.

GFI: Ground Fault Interrupter. A special sensitive breaker or receptacle used in a circuit where water may come in contact with equipment, such as in a bathroom, kitchen, or exterior receptacle. The purpose is to protect personnel and equipment from shock.

Ground: An electrical circuit attached to earth ground. Can be a bare copper or sheathed in green wire.

Homerun: Term for the electrical circuit wire that goes from the last electrical device back to the electrical panel.

J-Box: Junction Box. Box for joining or splicing wires. Can be metal or plastic. Typically have a J-box behind each electrical device or at a point where two separate wires must be joined.

Light-Diffused Fluorescent: Fluorescent light fixture with plastic light cover that diffuses the light.

Light- Fluorescent Strip: Fluorescent light fixture with exposed bulbs.

Load Center: Another name for electrical subpanel. Typical designation is 100 a. 120/240, which mean the panel is rated for 100 amperes of incoming current at 120/240 volts.

MC Cable: Type of electrical wire that comes in its own metal sheathing. Similar to BX cable but one step up from BX cable. Sometimes allowed to be used where code requires conduit but not BX cable.

M.D.P.: Main Distribution Panel. The point where electrical service enters the trailer. The panel for controlling electrical feeds to the individual subpanels in trailers. Usually provided by owner or others, not part of trailer.

N.E.C.: National Electric Code

Phase: Electrical service consists of either single phase or three phase. Refers to the number of wires that provide current to a device. Normal trailer power is 240 volt single phase service with (2) power, (1) neutral, and (1) ground wire.

Pull Wire: Wire or string placed in a wall or conduit that allows you to pull electrical wires through wall or conduit at a later time.

Romex: Typical trailer wiring consisting of three wires in a non- metallic covering used to provide electrical current from subpanels to electrical devices such as receptacles, light switches, lights.

Rough-in: Term for providing a J-box and pull wire to an accessible location for later use. Typcally done for telephone locations. Does not include wire, conduit, or devices.

Service Entrance: Conduit connected to panel box designed for incoming electrical service to come from outside into panel.
Exterior Walls:
.019 Aluminum: Standard aluminum exterior siding with baked on enamel finish. .019 refers to gauge of metal or thickness.

2 x 3: Wood lumber with a measurement of 1-1/2"x 2-1/2â€. Comes with designations such as SYP (Southern Yellow Pine), SPF (Pine Fir), and #2 which designate the quality level of the wood. The higher the number the better the wood.

2 x 4: Wood lumber with a measurement of 1-1/2"x 3-1/2â€. Comes with designations such as SYP (Southern Yellow Pine), SPF (Pine Fir), and #2 which designate the quality level of the wood. The higher the number the better the wood.

2 x 6: Wood lumber with a measurement of 1-1/2"x 5-1/2â€. Comes with designations such as SYP (Southern Yellow Pine), SPF (Pine Fir), and #2 which designate the quality level of the wood. The higher the number the better the wood.

Belt Rails: 1-1/2"x _"lumber running horizontally in the wall used as bracing and blocking to screw exterior siding to.

Caulk: A silicone or latex base sealant used over windows, doors, glass in doors, and in siding seams over windows and doors to protect against leakage.

Dura Temp: Type of T-1-11 siding. Has pre-finished exterior finish that can be painted.

Exterior Finish: Finish applied to exterior of exterior walls (aluminum, T-1-11, steel siding, stucco, vinyl siding)

Insulation: Material used in a cavity to prevent loss of heat or cooling from structure. Standard material is fiberglass bat. Different type covering include un-faced(no covering, Kraft faced(paper covering), foil faced(foil covering).

Plate: Refers to a continuous horizontal framing member on top or bottom of wall studs. Can be single plate or double plate.

Putty Tape: A 1/8"x 1"roll type putty used for sealing windows and doors at the time of installation.

Sheathing: Layer of flat covering, typically plywood, that spans between wall studs.

Skirting: Exterior finish around bottom of trailer(from ground to underside of trailer) that is site installed after unit is blocked and leveled. Involves building a wood framed wall to support skirt.

T-1-11: Exterior wood siding. Comes in _"to 5/8"thickness, 4 foot by 8 foot sheets, with horizontal grooves at 4 inch to 8 inch spacing. Can be painted or stained to any color.

Thermopylae: 1/8"thick wall sheathing, foil covered. Typically used under the aluminum siding for strength and moisture protection.

f

Foundations:
Auger Footing: Term for round hole drilled in ground and filled to top of hole with concrete.

Block & Level: Term for truck setting the modular building in place, and leveling the floor by placing CMU or concrete block under frame of unit. Does not include cranes, anchors, skirting.

C.M.U.: Concrete Masonry Unit, refers to concrete block used to block up trailers.

Footings: Part of foundation that is below ground level that transfers the load or weight of trailer to ground. Typically constructed out of concrete.

Piers: Part of foundation that is above ground level that transfers the load or weight of trailer to ground. Standard pier is a single loose stack CMU or concrete block. Piers can also be mortared in place CMU or concrete block, or poured concrete.

Tie-Downs: Term for device that is drilled or driven into ground then attached to trailer. Prevents trailer from being knocked over by wind.
Finishes:
Skirting: Exterior finish around bottom of trailer(from ground to underside of trailer) that is site installed after unit is blocked and leveled. Involves building a wood framed wall to support skirt.
Frame:
Axle Brake: A 6,000 lbs capacity axle with electric brakes, it can be 55-1/2", 75-1/2", or 88-1/2"wide.

Axle Idler: A 6,000 lbs capacity axle without brakes, it can be 55-1/2", 75-1/2", or 88-1/2"wide.

Brake Wire: Wiring to connect brake axles to the towing vehicle.

Coupler: The part of a hitch which connects to a towing ball on the towing vehicle. Typically a 2-5/16 inch ball size.

Cross member: The part of the steel chassis which connects the main beams and supports the floor.

Header: The cross member of an outrigger steel frame located at the front or rear of the chassis. The shape of the member can be channel.

Hitch: The triangular part of the frame located at the front of the chassis on which the coupler and jack are attached. Hitch is constructed of steel I beam, and is removable on larger units such as 10 and 12 wides. Approximately 4 feet long and is included in the length of the trailer when referenced as a size, i.e., a 64 foot model unit is box size of 60 feet, and a four foot hitch.

I-Beam: Steel beam, shaped like the letter I. Used in frame for structural support. Ranges in height from 6"to 14".

Jack: Adjustable metal bar located at front of hitch that acts as a mechanical lifting device to raise and lower the front end of the trailer to allow trucks to unhook from hitch without the hitch and trailer falling to the ground.

Outrigger: Frame style, steel chassis on which the modular buildings floor, walls, and roof are built. Uses triangular shaped members to transfer exterior wall and roof loads to an interior main frame. Less expensive than Perimeter Frame. In trailers bigger than a single wide, requires more blocking points than a Perimeter Frame.

Perimeter: Frame style, steel chassis using a main I-beam frame around perimeter of unit. It requires fewer blocking points than an Outrigger Frame.

Pintail Eye: A type of coupler at the front of the hitch. Shaped like a large donut. Used on hitches attached to heavy trailers. Not all truckers can handle pintel eye hitches.

Tie Downs: Anchors that are tied to trailer to prevent wind from blowing over unit. Anchor is tied to metal strap that is looped over chassis or attached to hurricane strap. Types of anchors are augered anchor (for dirt), or drive anchors (for rock).
Floor:
2 x 6: Wood lumber with a measurement of 1-1/2"x 5-1/2". Comes with designations such as SYP (Southern Yellow Pine), SPF (Pine Fir), and #2 which designate the quality level of the wood. The higher the number the better the wood.

Bottom Board: Covering on bottom of floor frame. Provides moisture and vermin barrier between ground and floor, and supports insulation. Types of bottom board are Simplex Paper(cheaper) and galvanized metal(more expensive).

Decking: Floor sheathing over top of floor joists or cross-members. Usually 5/8 inch thick, 5 ply, under lament grade. Other types are T&G,  at various thicknesses.

Floor Finish: Finish applied to floor decking (VCT, carpet, vinyl roll goods, ceramic).

Galvanized Metal: .040 gauge steel rolls with galvanized coating. Used for roofs or bottom boards on floors. Metal comes in rolls 12 wide with crimped seams every 8 feet.

Insulation: Material used in a cavity to prevent loss of heat or cooling from structure. Standard material is fiberglass batt. Different type covering include unfaced(no covering, kraft faced(paper covering), foil faced(foil covering).

Joists (Floor): Structural member which supports floor decking, usually wood 2 x 6's or 2 x 8's. Supported by floor frame or chassis.

Roll Goods: Type of floor finish. Comes in rolls. Less expensive than tile, but does not wear as well.

R"Value: The resistance to heat flow. A measure of how effective the insulation is. The higher the “R"value, the more effective the insulation.

Simplex Paper: Type of bottom board. Paper impregnated with asphalt coating to provide moisture and vermin barrier.

T & G: Tongue and Groove. Plywood with sides shaped that the tongue side slips into the groove side giving additional support to plywood. Allows plywood to span between floor joists with less spongy feeling.

VCT: Vinyl Composition Tile. Type of floor covering. 12 inch by 12 inch tiles that are used in areas that have more foot traffic and such as entrance areas, rest room.
Fire Protection:
N.F.P.A.: National Fire Protection Association

Life Safety: Refers to N.F.P.A. 101 – Life Safety Code

U.F.C.: Uniform Fire Code

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h

Healthcare: You find these Links to Healthcare Resources helpful.

 


i

I.B.C. : International Building Code

I.C.B.O.: International Conference of Building Officials


m

Mechanical
A.S.H.R.A.E.: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers

A.S.M.E.: American Society of Mechanical Engineers

H.V.A.C.: Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning

U.M.C.: Uniform Mechanical Code

A/C: Air conditioner, can be wall hung, roof mount, thru wall. Rated according to cooling capacity in BTU's or tons. Usually comes with electric resistance heat.

Baseboard Heat: Electric Resistance heating units located near base of wall. Rated according to heating capacity in kw's.

BTU: British Thermal Units. Rating for cooling or heating capacity. 12,000BTU's is equal to 1 ton.

Damper: a blade or blades installed in a duct to open or close for the adjustment of air flow.

Diffuser: The round or square device at end of ductwork which enters a room and diffuses or disperses the heat or air conditioning.

Duct: Round or rectangular metal pipe for distributing warm or cooled air from air conditioner. Usually located in ceiling space.

Heat Pump: Type of air conditioner that can economically provide warm air as well as cooled air.

H.V.A.C.: Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning

KW: Kilowatt – equals 1,000 watts, unit of measure of electrical power.

Plenum: A chamber or space forming a part of an air conditioning system. Plenum wall on a trailer refers to the interior partition just inside the end wall where the air conditioner is located. The air space provide by the gap between the two walls is used to allow return air to get to the air conditioner. Allows return air to be ducted out of each individual room in the trailer, rather than returning air thru grilles in each room door. More expensive than return air direct at unit grille.

Resistance Heat: Term for the heat developed by running electricity thru a coil of wires similar to a toaster. Straight air conditioners (non-heat pumps) usually provide heat this way. Air conditioner with resistance heat is less expensive to purchase than heat pumps, but more expensive to operate than heat pump.

Return Air: Refers to the air that is drawn back out of a room or area to go back through air conditioner to be reheated or cooled. Can be returned through return grill at air conditioner unit, or return duct.

Supply Air: Refers to the air that is blown into a room or area out of the air conditioner unit. Can be supplied directly from air conditioner, or thru supply duct.

T-Stat: Thermostat. Device used to control temperature in a space. Types of T-stats include manual switchover (must tell air conditioner to put out heat or cold), or automatic switchover.


n

N.C.S.B.C.S.: National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards

N.I.S.T.: National Institute of Standards and Technologies

o

O.C.: On center refers to spacing of items from center of item not outside or clear.

p

Plumbing:
ABS: Type of waste piping.

China: Vitreous china. Ceramic type finish for plumbing fixtures such as lavatories and water closets.

Copper: Type of piping usually used for supply water. Standard pipe is type L"copper. Copper type refers to wall thickness of pipe. TypeL, or , with M"being the thickest.

DWV: (Drain, Waste, Vent) Drain piping usually ABS or PVC Schedule 40.

I.A.P.M.O.: International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials

Lavatory: Term for a sink in a rest room.

Manifold: Term to mean the joining together of all the plumbing fixture waste pipe drops.

PVC: Poly-vinyl chloride. Type of plastic piping. Usually used for waste piping, occasionally used for supply piping.

Schedule: Term for wall thickness of piping. The higher the number, the thicker the pipe.

Supply: Piping for fresh water, usually type L"copper.

SS: Stainless Steel.

U.P.C.: Uniform Plumbing Code

Water Closet: Term for a flushable toilet.

Water Cooler: Term for a refrigerated drinking fountain.

PA L&I: Pennsylvania Labor & Industry. Similar to a state approval. Cannot be done by third party. Must be approved by PA L&I.


r

Roof
Bow Truss: A wooden rafter made of a bowed truss design. Designed to support roof and ceiling of a standard single wide trailer.

Butyl Tape: A 1/8"x 1"roll type butyl putty used to waterproof roof edges. Installed under roof edge on front and rear and J-rails on sides.

Caulk: A silicone or latex base sealant used over windows, doors, glass in doors, and in siding seams over windows and doors to protect against leakage.

Ceiling: The finish surface of an overhead structure, such as sea spray, gypsum, acoustical.

Clear Span: Reference to a span that does not have intermediate support. In a trailer, a clear span trailer has post at the four corners only, no other support columns along roof beam.

E.P.D.M.: Ethylene, propylene, diene terpolymer membrane. Type of roofing, typical thickness of 45 mil, or 60 mil. The larger the number, the thicker the roofing, the more expensive the roofing.

Galvanized Metal: Typically used in roofing of standard single wide modular buildings. 30 gauge thickness.

Hurricane Straps: 1-1/2"wide galvanized steel straps installed in one long piece over roof and under exterior finish. Attached to tie-downs or anchors. Straps are used to tie unit down against lateral wind load.

Interior Finish: Finish applied to interior ceiling (gypsum, sea spray, acoustical, etc.).

Joist: Horizontal structural member layed on edge to support sheathing.

Mansard: An architectural feature constructed on exterior wall at roof line. Typical mansard is a 24 inch high by 2 inch thick vertical structure with either T-1-11 or vertical aluminum surface.

Mate Beam: Beam constructed along side wall of trailer at a seam line to support roof. Typically constructed from multiple layers of plywood.

Rafter: Structural member to support a roof load. Flat roof rafters are called roof joists.

Roof Beam: A longitudinal structural member designed to carry roof load over spans in trailer. Usually beam consists of laminated, glued and stapled plywood. Number and height of layers depends on span required.

Roofing: Material used for exterior finish of roof such as galvanized metal, rubber roof, EPDM, standing seam)

Rubber Roofing: Type of roof covering that is primarily constructed of single layer of rubber reinforced with fibers.

Sea spray: Pre-finished gypsum sheathing used for ceiling. Typically 3/8" thick.

Sheathing: Layer of flat covering, typically plywood, that spans between roof joists.

Span: The clear horizontal distance between structural supports, as a roof beam spans between two support columns or posts.

Suspended Ceiling: Ceiling consisting of metal frame that supports tiles that rest on frame. Can be 2' by 2' or 2' by 4'. Another name for acoustical ceiling or T-grid ceiling. Provides an acoustical sound reduction, and can be upgraded to meet fire ratings.

True Ceiling: The underside of the roof structure. Typically a finished ceiling is installed below the true ceiling.

Truss: Beams or other supports connected to support a roof. Steel truss is typically a bar joist truss with open web.

s

State Seals: A seal label is issued and affixed to the modular building. It indicates the building is constructed to compliance with the particular state codes.

S.B.C.: Standard Building Code (formerly Southern Building Code)

S.B.C.C.I.: Southern Building Code Congress International

t

Type: Refers to construction type. Trailers can be 2-C Non combustible concrete and steel, 5-A Wood framed combustible with fire rating, and the most common 5-B Wood framed combustible.

Third Party: Term for a separate agent other than manufacturing facility, that has authority to review buildings for compliance with state code, and act as state's agent.


u

USE Group: Term for category of type of use group of the building:
A-Assembly
B-Business
E-Educational
I-Institutional
R-Residential

U.B.C.: Uniform Building Code

v

Vertical Rise

w

Walls (Interior):
2 x 3: Wood lumber with a measurement of 1-1/2"x 2-1/2â€. Comes with designations such as SYP (Southern Yellow Pine), SPF (Pine Fir), and #2 which designate the quality level of the wood. The higher the number the better the wood.

2 x 4: Wood lumber with a measurement of 1-1/2"x 3-1/2â€. Comes with designations such as SYP (Southern Yellow Pine), SPF (Pine Fir), and #2 which designate the quality level of the wood. The higher the number the better the wood.

Caulk: A silicone or latex base sealant used over windows, doors, glass in doors, and in siding seams over windows and doors to protect against leakage.

Interior Finish: Finish applied to interior walls (paneling, gypsum, etc.).

Paneling: Interior wall finish, ¼"thick, applied to inside of exterior studs and interior partitions. Standard color is “Williams Birchâ€.

Trim: Wood or pre-finished moldings that trim out terminations of paneling, vinyl gypsum. See attached sketch for types of moldings.

Windows:
B.O.B.: Bronze on Bronze. Refers to the tinting of the glass in a double insulated glass door or window. Bronze tint on the exterior, bronze tint glass on the interior.

B.O.C.: Bronze on Clear. Refers to the tinting of the glass in a double insulated glass door or window. Bronze tint on the exterior, clear glass on the interior.

Caulk: A silicone or latex base sealant used over windows, doors, glass in doors, and in siding seams over windows and doors to protect against leakage.

D.I.G.: Double insulated glass. Two layers of glass with air space between them. Better insulating value than standard single pane glass.

H.S.: Horizontal Slider. Standard trailer window. Refers to how the window opens. One half of the window slides over the other half in the horizontal direction.

V.S.: Vertical Slider. Refers to how the window opens. One half of the window slides over the other half in the vertical direction. Requires latches to keep window open.

Double Hung: Typical residential style window. Both halves of the window open by sliding in the vertical direction, but do not require latches to keep open.

Single Hung: Residential style window. Bottom half of window slides open in the vertical direction. Top half is fixed and cannot move. Does not require latch to keep window open.
  

 

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